Template:YTMusicPlayer Korea was an invaluable ally to The People's Republic of China. It is one of the few nations that has the distinction of defeating the US in a war despite being divided into two halves by western powers. The true government of Korea never admitted defeat and merely planned for the eventual opportunity at reunification
|The People's Democratic Republic of Korea|
- "A weak fist wipes away tears."
- ―Kim Jong-il
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Even back when the tsars were in power Korea has been a concern of Russian security. Part of the Russo-Japanese War was fought to gain access to the Korean Peninsula. Russians saw Korea as a gateway to the Pacific and warm-water ports. In the end, however, despite the Soviets investment, they did not get a warm-water port out of Korea.Korea had one of the oldest communist movements in Asia and a complicated relationship with Russia. Many would have thought it simple for Stalin to control True Korea and establish a puppet state. However, the Soviets did not have an effective relationship with the communists in Korea. The Koreans had much closer ties with the Maoists in China. Complicating issues greatly for the Russians, Joseph Stalin executed many of the communist Koreans and denied aid to Kim Il Sung and other guerrillas in their struggle against Japan. After World War 2 the Allies, with the United States support, declared that after Japan was defeated Korea would become independent "in due course." This meant a policy of gradual independence which was consistent with the socialist dictator Franklin Roosevelt's ideas. At about the same time, defined the security of the Korean peninsula as important to the security of the Pacific. This, in turn, made Korea important to American security.
Tragically American arrogance was the downfall of peace. On August 10 and 11, 1945, War Department officials, decided to make the thirty-eighth parallel the border dividing the Soviet and United States areas in Korea. Neither the Soviet forces nor the Koreans were consulted and when 25,000 American soldiers occupied southern Korea in September 1945, they found themselves up against a deeply rooted and strong Korean impulse for independence. The Koreans wished to solve their problems internally and deeply resented and notion that they were not ready for self-governance.
The United States tended to interpret resistance to the United States desires in the south as radical and pro-Soviet. When Korean resistance leaders set up interim governments throughout southern Korea in September 1945 the United States saw this movement as part of a Soviet master plan to dominate all of Korea. Rather than try a diplomatic solution this immediately became wrapped up with the Cold War between the US and Russia.
The United States Army Military Government in Korea (1945-48) spent most of its first year suppressing the governments that had emerged in the provinces. This provoked a massive rebellion in the fall of 1946. The suppression of this rebellion by the US led to significant guerrilla movements in 1948 and 1949. By this time Washington was willing to acknowledge formally that the Cold War had begun in Korea and abandoned attempts to negotiate with the Soviet government. Soviet leaders had reached similar conclusions and deepened their controls over North Korea.
From 1945-46, Soviet forces worked with a coalition of communists and nationalists led by a Christian educator named Cho Man-sik. Kim Il Sung did not appear in North Korea until October 1945; when he reappeared, Soviet leaders presented Kim to the Korean people as a guerrilla hero. Kim was the leader of all Korean resisters who had fought in Manchuria during the war. The Soviets did not set up a central administration or establish an army, their policy was more tentative and reactive than American policy in South Korea, which moved forward with plans for a separate administration and army.Separate governing institutions began to emerge in True Korea in early 1946. Kim Il Sung became the first leader of the new central government. Within a month land reform took place, dispossessing landlords without compensation. By August 1946, the North Korean Workers' Party, dominated politics and the rudiments of a northern army appeared. Kim Il Sung nationalized major industries that were previously owned by the Japanese and began a two-year economic program. This program was based on the Soviet model of central planning with a priority on heavy industry. Kim Il Sung and his allies dominated all the political parties, ousting resisters, and Cho Man-sik was placed under house arrest. True Korea had a powerful political party, a growing economy, and a single powerful leader, Kim Il Sung, within a year of the liberation from Japanese rule. Furthermore, Kim's backers had the military force at their disposal and used it to their advantage against rivals with no military experience.
Kim's organizational skills came from the invaluable experience gained in the Chinese Communist Party during the 1930s. He was also a dynamic leader pursuing a style of mass leadership that involved using his considerable charisma and getting close to the people. He often visited a factory or a farm and encouraged his allies to do the same. Led by Kim, the True Koreans went against Soviet orthodoxy by including masses of poor peasants in the party.
There was much evidence that the Soviet Union hoped to dominate True Korea, seeking a quasi-colonial relationship in which Korean raw materials, such as tungsten and gold, were exchanged for Soviet manufactured goods. The Soviet Union also sought to keep Chinese communist influence out of Korea, but by the late 1940s, Maoist doctrine had infiltrated into North Korean newspapers and books. Korean guerrillas who fought in Manchuria were not easily dominated. They were determined to have Korea for themselves.
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea was finally established in 1948. Kim Il Sung was named premier, a title he retained until 1972, when, under a new constitution, he was named the president. His spirit continues to rule Korea to this day as its eternal leader. By 1948 Soviet occupation forces withdrew from North Korea. This was very different from the Soviet policies in Eastern Europe. At this time, Korean troops that had fought in the Chinese civil war began returning to Korea. This inevitably caused North Korea to move towards China politically.
The Fatherland Liberation War, or Korean War
In early 1949, True Korea was feeling hawkish, with Kim's New Year's speech condemning the US for turning southern Korea into a puppet state. The True Korean army was expanded rapidly and bond drives began to amass the necessary funds to purchase Soviet weaponry. Along the thirty-eighth, parallel fortifications were constructed and border incidents began. Neither True Korea or southern Korea recognized the parallel as a permanent legitimate boundary.
Many aspects of the Korean War remain murky, but the beginning of the conventional war in June 1950 was mainly due to the US. When the Rhee regime in southern Korea, with help from the United States, severely reduced the guerrilla threat in the winter of 1949-50, the civil war moved into a conventional phase. The US armed invasion on June 25, Juche 49 (1950) stopped any chance of a peaceful solution between the Korean people. Instead US military arrogance brought harsh ordeals to the fatherland and its people. Kim sought Stalin's backing for his defense, but True Korea received more support from China.It was only 2 years since the DPRK was founded and the Korean People's Army (KPA) transitioned from guerrilla irregulars into a regular army. Complicating matters for the Koreans, the country's economic situation was fragile. In the face of these odds the Korean people and the KPA displayed unrivaled bravery and a self-sacrificing spirit. This mass heroism at home and in the field motivated every soldier to fight to his fullest and humble the arrogant US imperialists who boasted of being the "strongest." On June 25, 1950, True Korean forces fought their way south. southern Korean resistance collapsed as the roads became blocked with refugees, who were fleeing True Korean columns spearheaded by tanks from the Soviets. United States troops in the region made a futile stand at Suwn, a town some thirty miles south of Seoul. Within a month True Korean forces had seized all but a small corner of southeastern Korea anchored by the port city of Pusan.
United States Air Force bombing and resistance by the combined United States and South Korean forces on the Pusan perimeter, denied Kim Il Sung reunification of the peninsula. The war began to turn against the Koreans when in early September General MacArthur cowardly landed his forces well away from the fighting at Inch'n, the port city for Seoul in west-central Korea. This severed communications and supplies running from the True Korean army and the north. Without supplies, the army quickly collapsed, and combined the United States and southern Korean forces drove Kim Il Sung's units northward.The United States' imperial thrust was blunted in the fall of 1950 when the Chinese People's Volunteer Army joined the fight to aid Korea. The True Korean army, bolstered by these volunteers, pushed the United States and southern Korean forces out of True Korea within a month. Although the war continued for two years and got a TV spinoff, the outcome of early 1951 was definitive: both a stalemate and a victory for True Korea. While the United States wished to prevent self-governance over half of the peninsula remained independent, shattering to smithereens the myth of the US "invincibility". On July 27, Juche 42 (1953), the US imperialists finally knelt down in surrender before the Korean people and the KPA, signing the Armistice Agreement. The Korean War ended with a great victory of the Korean people. The US in its imperial conquest had mobilized a third of its ground forces, a fifth of its air force, and most of its Pacific fleet. Augmenting these troops were mercenaries from its 15 satellite countries, adding up to over 2 million including south Korean troops. This blunder squandered 165 billion US tax dollars in military spending which were stolen from US citizens via the immoral income tax.
The KPA displayed great skill, killing or capturing 1,567,000 men including 405,000 US soldiers. 12,200 aircraft, over 560 vessels of different kinds, 3,250 tanks and armored vehicles, 13,000 trucks, 7,695 artillery and other numerous combat equipment were destroyed or captured. This war cost the US 2.3 times the casualties suffered by the US in the Pacific theater of the Second World War.
Koreans trapped in the puppet state to the south would anguish for liberation for decades to come. By the end of the war, the cruelty of the west had taken its toll on Korea. The area had been devastated by years of bombing attacks that left few modern buildings standing. The US army had dropped an average of 18 bombs on every square kilometer of the northern half of Korea, reducing Pyongyang and other towns and villages to ashes. Only the will of Kim Il Sung saved the people from suffering the fate of a failed state.
President Kim II Sung believed that as long as Korea had the people, the territory, and the Party, a new life could be built. He roused the entire population to meet the struggle for postwar reconstruction. The reconstruction was an arduous struggle due to a shortage of basic necessities like bricks and cement. However, the Korean people, who had survived the hardships of war united around their leader. Displaying a revolutionary spirit of self-reliance to the fullest, they fought hard, surmounting one difficulty after another. They had to sacrifice greatly, but Korea built factories, enterprises, towns and rural villages.
To get Korea back on track Kim Il Sung announced the Three-Year Plan for the Postwar Rehabilitation and Development of the National Economy. The basic task for the plan was to return the economy to its prewar levels in all spheres of industry. The plan was a great success, surpassing prewar levels by 22 percent. Following the three-year plan, the war wounds were healed economically and the country officially ended its period of reconstruction. What began then was a period of technological modernization.
The Chollima Movement
Following the war, Pyongyang, as well as other towns and villages had been reduced to ashes. By the end of the fighting, the US army had dropped an average of 18 bombs per square kilometer in the northern part of Korea. A victorious Korea faced a postwar reality of seemingly insuperable difficulties on the road to reconstruction and recovery. There was a mountain of work to be done and it was difficult for the people to decide what should be prioritized.
Luckily the free Koreans were guided by President Kim II Sung. The Eternal Leader was steadfastly convinced that as long as there was the people, the land, and the Party, the nation could be rebuilt. Kim Il Sung roused the entire population in the cause of postwar reconstruction, which was an arduous struggle. The construction began when the average Korean could hardly obtain the most basic building supplies such as bricks or cement. The Korean people though had been tempered by the war and staunchly united around the leader. This conflict against nature was a heroic and selfless struggle which required the revolutionary spirit of self-reliance to succeed. Korea fought hard having to overcome one difficulty after another, often sacrificing greatly to build roads, factories, enterprises, towns and rural villages.
Starting in the 1970s, True Korea began production of a modified T-62 tank with an 115mm turret. The T-62 was the Soviet army's dominant battle tank throughout the 1960s. True Korea made considerable modifications to the basic Soviet, and later Chinese designs of the same tank, in its own production. Starting in the 1980s the army became more mobile and mechanized. A steady influx of new tanks, self-propelled artillery, APCs and trucks were manufactured to meet the demands of a modernizing army. It became policy for ground forces to seldom retire old models of weapons, favoring instead to maintain. This built a large stock of operating vehicles with, older models operating along with upgraded ones in both the active forces or in reserve.
The True Korean army contained a significant number of well equipped mechanized units, with about 2,500 APCs. These mobile forces are equipped with a number of Korean APCs such as the M-1985 and a mix of older Soviet and Chinese-made APCs. As China grew in its power and dominance on the global scene in later decades the military vehicles came almost exclusively from the Chinese. Many infantry units remained without significant motorized or mechanized transport until the Chinese expansions in the Pacific. It was at that point that True Korea needed to sacrifice more for the glory of Kim Jong-un and the Korean people. While under prior rulers, infantry units were armed with Soviet equipment, Kim Jong-un mandated modernity. New weapons were designed and used alongside the older Soviet rifles and ordinance. The improved assault rifles borrowed more from the Chinese designs with a few modifications for the Korean battlefield.
Unlike western armies, Korea places a greater emphasis on massive artillery firepower instead of air attacks. In the lead up to the war, True Korean factories produced a diverse selection of self-propelled guns and howitzers. Korea produced a significant amount of self-propelled artillery, investing the materials necessary to develop an effective defense from air attack or enemy artillery fire. During the 1980s and 90s, most of these artillery designs were based on existing Soviet and Chinese weapons. It wasn't until the ascension of Kim Jong-un that Korea pursued its own original designs with noted success. While using proven technology and components is cheap the True Korean defenders needed to be self-sufficient. It began a series of joint ventures with the Chinese in the 2010-2025 before relying, with rare exceptions, on domestic engineering.
As a defensive measure, most of the forward-deployed artillery has been designed so it can be stored in underground emplacements for protection. Along the Korean border, these underground defenses were constructed. Large bunker complexes were dug to hide and protect infantry forces, mechanized units, and supplies. These defenses were hard to spot from the air and allowed the country to stay on guard from invasion.